医院放射科的门口都会有“孕妇止步”的标识,很多准妈妈在怀孕期间也会选择穿着防辐射服,一听到“放射”就觉得如临大敌。今天就和大家聊聊怀孕和哺乳期间的“放射那些事儿”。

Hospital radiology doors will have \"pregnant women stop\" signs, many expectant mothers during pregnancy will also choose to wear anti-radiation clothing, the \"radiation\" feel like a big enemy. Today we'll talk about \"radiation\" during pregnancy and lactation.

  X射线具有较强的穿透力,并被所穿透的介质吸收而衰减,被照射物质的密度和厚度不同会导致所透照X射线能量不同程度衰减。因此,从X射线管头的窗口发射的有用射线透射人体后,形成的影像可用于诊断。

X-rays are highly penetrating and attenuated by the absorption of the penetrating medium. Different densities of density and thickness of the irradiated material cause the energy of the irradiated X-rays to decay to varying degrees. Therefore, the resulting image of a useful ray transmitted from the window of the X-ray tube head after transmitting the human body can be used for diagnosis.

  符合规范的放射诊断所致剂量远远低于上述值,因此即便接受多次的X射线检查,也不太可能导致不孕不育。此外,到目前为止的研究结果显示,父母任一方的性腺在受精前接受X射线检查,并不会增加儿童癌症或畸形的发生。

The standard diagnostic dose is far below the above, so even multiple X-rays are unlikely to lead to infertility. In addition, so far research has shown that the gonads of either parent undergoing an X-ray examination before fertilization does not increase the incidence of cancer or deformities in children.

  在进行放射诊断检查时,X射线与物质原子相互作用,发生一次相互作用就损失大部分能量或全部能量(大能量转移),光子不是完全消失就是大角度散射,也就是说,X射线不会残留在受检者身上。

X-rays interact with the atoms of matter during a radio-diagnostic examination, and a single interaction loses most or all of the energy (large energy transfer), and the photon either disappears completely or scatters at large angles, that is, the X-rays do not remain on the subject.

  哺乳期拍片子,宝妈们的乳汁就相当于“被辐照了”,但是其被辐照剂量远远低于正常辐照食品所用剂量,故而也不会对宝妈们的乳汁造成影响,哺乳期内拍片子或CT后是可以正常哺乳的。

During the lactation period, Bao Ma's milk is equivalent to \"irradiated \", but its irradiated dose is far lower than the normal dose of irradiated food, so it will not affect the milk of Bao Ma.

  诊断核医学包括以脏器显像和功能测定为主要内容的体内诊断法和以体外放射分析为主要内容的体外诊断法;治疗核医学是利用放射性核素发射的射线,对病变组织进行高度集中照射治疗,即利用放射性核素标记药物进行靶向治疗(俗称“生物导弹”)。

Diagnostic nuclear medicine includes the in vivo diagnostic method with organ imaging and function measurement as the main content and the in vitro diagnostic method with in vitro radioanalysis as the main content.

  临床核医学通常会将放射性核素及其标记化合物,即放射性药物,引入人体内,且放射性药物会在患者体内进行代谢,因而会对患者造成一定的照射。

Clinical nuclear medicine usually introduces radionuclides and their marked compounds, or radioactive drugs, into the human body, and radioactive drugs are metabolized in the patient's body, thus causing a certain amount of radiation to the patient.

  用碘-131治疗分化型甲状腺癌(DTC)时,碘-131的用量相对较大,一定程度上可损伤睾丸功能,但现有临床证据并未表明碘-131对睾丸的损伤可增加不育、不良分娩事件及后代先天性发育不良的风险。

in the treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer (dtc) with iodine-131, the dosage of iodine-131 is relatively large and can damage testicular function to some extent. however, the available clinical evidence does not show that iodine-131 damage to testicular may increase the risk of infertility, adverse delivery events, and congenital dysplasia in offspring.

  部分女性DTC患者,经碘-131治疗后,短期内可出现月经推迟、经量减少或短暂性闭经,但多数会在一年内恢复正常。碘-131对卵巢的长期效果,仅表现为绝经时间的轻度提前。

Some female DTC patients, after iodine-131 treatment, short-term menstrual delay, menstrual volume reduction or transient amenorrhea, but most will return to normal within a year. the long-term effect of iodine-131 on the ovary, showing only mild advance of menopause time.

  因此,无论男性或女性DTC患者,都不必因既往接受过碘-131治疗而放弃生育计划,但应在碘-131治疗6到12月后再计划生育。

Therefore, neither male nor female DTC patients need to abandon their fertility plans because they have received iodine-131 treatment in the past, but family planning should be carried out after 6 to 12 months of iodine-131 treatment.

  在妊娠的不同阶段接受18F-、99mTc-标记物显像,胎儿的吸收剂量会存在一定差异,但这种显像剂量均低于50毫戈瑞,目前的研究认为,对胚胎、胎儿的生长发育不会产生影响。

receiving 18f-,99mtc-labeled imaging at different stages of pregnancy, there will be some difference in the absorption dose of the fetus, but this imaging dose is lower than 50 mgore, and the current study suggests that it will have no effect on the growth and development of the embryo and the fetus.

  因此,妊娠期女性如接受了放射性核素显像,没有必要终止妊娠。但是,从妊娠12周开始,胎儿甲状腺即具备了摄碘能力,碘能够自由通过胎盘,因此整个妊娠期都应避免进行放射性碘及其标记物的显像。

Therefore, if pregnant women receive radionuclide imaging, there is no need to terminate pregnancy. However, from the beginning of 12 weeks of pregnancy, the fetal thyroid has the ability of iodine uptake, iodine can freely pass through the placenta, so the whole pregnancy should avoid the imaging of radioactive iodine and its markers.

  针对这个问题,国际辐射防护委员会106号出版物对部分放射性药物做了推荐:11C-、14C-、13N-、15O-标记物及18F-FDG无须中断母乳喂养。多数99mTc标记的药物,考虑到游离锝的出现,建议中断母乳喂养4小时。对于碘-123、碘-131及其标记物,须中断母乳喂养至少3周。

In response to this question, the International Council for Radiological Protection publication No.106 recommended some radioactive drugs:11C-,14C-,13N-,15O-markers and 18F-FDG without interruption of breastfeeding. Most 99mTc-labeled drugs, considering the emergence of free technetium, are recommended to interrupt breastfeeding for 4 hours. For iodine-123, iodine-131 and its markers, breast-feeding shall be interrupted for at least 3 weeks.

  母乳喂养时,由于近距离接触婴儿,母亲体内滞留的18F-FDG会对婴儿造成一定的外照射,对此欧洲核医学学会发布的“18F-FDG肿瘤显像操作指南”建议,静脉注射18F-FDG后的12小时应暂停母乳喂养,在这期间如必须哺乳,可挤出乳液进行喂乳。

When breast-feeding is carried out, the 18F-FDG in the mother's body may cause some external radiation to the baby due to close contact with the baby, according to the \"18F-FDG tumor imaging guidelines \"issued by the European Institute of Nuclear Medicine.

  其实“放射”并不像我们想象的那么可怕,备孕、怀孕、哺乳期间,如有放射诊断和治疗的需求,还是要及时到正规医院就诊,遵循医嘱,千万不要讳疾忌医。

In fact,\" radiation \"is not as terrible as we thought, pregnancy, breast-feeding, if there is a need for radiation diagnosis and treatment, or to see a regular hospital in time, follow the doctor's advice, do not taboo doctor.


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